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Area: total: 1,285,220 sq km
land: 1.28 million sq km
water: 5,220 sq km

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west temperate to frigid in Andes

Terrain: western coastal plain [costa], high and rugged Andes in center [sierra], eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin [selva]

Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas

Population: 29,180,899 [July 2008 est.]

Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.7% [male 4,409,227/female 4,253,836]
15-64 years: 64.7% [male 9,501,597/female 9,381,139]
65 years and over: 5.6% [male 770,389/female 864,711] [2008 est.]

Nationality: noun: Peruvian[s]
adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups: Amerindian 45%, mestizo [mixed Amerindian and white] 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Languages: Spanish [official], Quechua [official], Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages

Capital: name: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 [same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time]

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July [1821