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Area: total: 8,511,965 sq km
land: 8,456,510 sq km
water: 55,455 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Population: 191,908,598
note: Brazil conducted a census in August 2000, which reported a population of 169,799,170 that figure was about 3.3% lower than projections by the US Census Bureau, and is close to the implied underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected [July 2008 est.]

Age structure: 0-14 years: 24.9% [male 24,391,338/female 23,454,418]
15-64 years: 68.7% [male 65,330,427/female 66,431,982]
65 years and over: 6.4% [male 5,055,770/female 7,244,663] [2008 est.]

Nationality: noun: Brazilian[s]
adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups: white 53.7%, mulatto [mixed white and black] 38.5%, black 6.2%, other [includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian] 0.9%, unspecified 0.7% [2000 census]

Languages: Portuguese [official and most widely spoken language] note - less common languages include Spanish [border areas and schools], German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages

Capital: name: Brasilia
geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
time difference: UTC-3 [2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time]
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October ends third Sunday in February
note: Brazil is divided into four time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September [1822]